Providing security is about more than wearing a uniform and being aware of your surroundings. It requires specialized skills and training that match the type of security service offered. Since there isn’t a single college degree in security, a student should choose a field of interest to major in that that complements the type of security in which he wishes to specialize.

National Security and Emergency Management

When a disaster strikes or there is suspicion of a threat, professionals in the country’s security and emergency management agencies respond. Such agencies include the Department of Homeland Security, National Security Agency, emergency management officials and those that provide security on the state, county and city levels. The professionals within these agencies make security and disaster plans to help protect residents from danger and recover if there's an incident.

Federal and State Law Enforcement Agencies

Working as an agent in a federal agency like the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Central Intelligence Agency or Department of Homeland Security requires at least a bachelor’s degree. The type of degree required varies by security role. For example, an individual may need a degree in psychology to work as an agent who specializes in criminal profiling. Some non-federal law enforcement agencies also require certain employees to have a bachelor’s degree. A detective or police chief, for instance, may have a degree in criminal justice or a related field.

Computer Security

As long as computers are connected to the Internet or some type of network, they are vulnerable to attacks. Professionals who are experts in issues related to computer and network security have a degree in computer science or information assurance analysis. They work for businesses and government agencies to prevent internal attacks, as well as attacks that originate overseas. In addition to securing and monitoring a network, computer security professionals try to penetrate their own systems in an attempt to find and remedy flaws.

Contracted Security

The government and private organizations sometimes use contractors to fulfill their security needs. The type of degree to work with such a security service depends on the scope of the work and the expertise needed. If an individual wants to join a company that offers reconnaissance-type services, he may need a degree in geographic information systems, or GIS. Alternatively, an individual may hold a degree that supports a security operation, like a translator who has a degree in a foreign language.

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