Preschool is a time of learning and exploration for a child. When a child attends a preschool, parents expect exposure to cognitive learning which is also considered intellectual learning. In general, preschool facilities have goals and objectives for students to reach during their time in the school. The exact goals and objectives will vary on the school and the age of the student, but the children should be prepared to enter kindergarten and are cognitively ready before they finish preschool.
Problem-solving skills are among the goals and objectives of most preschools. The exact goals will vary depending on the school, but generally the preschool tries promoting curiosity and basic problem-solving skills. Children are expected to try out a few different options to solve problems and perseverance is encouraged. Teachers help students learn the simple skills associated with figuring out how to fix or work through any problem.
Preschool children are exposed to the letters of the alphabet, generally starting with the alphabet song. By the time they finish preschool, children should know the letters in order and know how to spell their own names. Among the letter skills, children learn basic language skills and are exposed to a wider vocabulary.
In preschool, math is a minimal skill. In general, teachers instruct counting and number recognition. For example, children learn to count to 20 and can recognize numbers from one to 10 in written form. They are also expected to understand math concepts in words like near, between, around or behind. Shape recognition, like identifying squares or triangles, is considered among the math skills preschool students learn.
Self-awareness is started in preschool. Students at the preschool level are starting to learn concepts about how people differ, starting with self-awareness. By the time preschoolers leave for kindergarten, they should know the basics of myself versus others. They are expected to know emotions and feelings and how to stand up for their personal rights. They should also know family relationships and responsibilities within the family by the end of preschool.