School-age children spend most of their time surrounded by their peers. Classmates, teammates and fellow club members far outnumber the adults in students' lives. Peer pressure can become a formidable influence in the lives of children in grades two through twelve.

Defining Peer Pressure

From birth through age six, the family unit crafts a child's sense of identity. Parents and siblings affect a child's likes, dislikes, tastes in clothing, food and music and, perhaps most importantly, values. Once children enter school, they form connections to the larger group of their peers. This group brings new ideas and experiences. Peer pressure occurs when a student's actions are influenced by this group. The "pressure" happens when peers suggest or insist on actions that stray from the child's normal behavior and values. Though the phrase is often used negatively, peer pressure can sometimes cause positive outcomes.

Negative Peer Pressure

Many teens feel pressured by their peers to drink alcohol.

Peer pressure leads to some disturbing negative behavior in schoolchildren. About 30 percent of students are offered drugs by their friends in middle or high school. Just over 75 percent of high school students have tried alcohol. Half of all teenagers feel pressured by their peers about sexual activity. In a survey conducted by Survelum Public Data Bank, students felt pressured by their peers between 35 and 49 percent of the time. Psychiatrists attribute the power of peer pressure to a child's growing desire to fit in to a group -- particularly if the group has a social status within the school.

Positive Peer Pressure

Thankfully, peer pressure can also be positive. For example, wanting to join an athletic group of friends may compel an otherwise sedentary student to try out for the soccer team. In the Survelum Public Data Bank survey on peer pressure, 51 percent of teenagers felt that peer pressure was sometimes positive. One respondent wrote, "...sometimes it [peer pressure] can help you gain confidence...." Other examples of positive peer pressure include students encouraging a classmate to run for school president, or friends suggesting that a talented peer try out for a choir solo.

Peers vs Parents

Researchers disagree about the role of parents in shaping teen behavior.

Researchers differ over whether parents or a student's peers has more influence over that student's behavior. In a study published in The Journal of Primary Prevention, researchers concluded that when parents tolerate drug use, teens are more likely to use illicit drugs. They also noted that when parents closely supervise their teens, the students were less likely to have friends who used drugs. Conversely, in her book "The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way They Do," Judith Rich Harris argues that peers have more influence than parents in shaping children's behavior.

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